Fleet Management is a basic requirement in modern vehicle fleets to provide cost efficient operation. These systems are complex with many electronic components installed in vehicles (FMS gateway, AVL, Board computer, etc.) and in the back office.
This section is about to introduce what is and what makes a Fleet Management System.
Fleet Management System
In transportation there is an increasing need of the continuous surveillance of the vehicle fleets which can be solved by Fleet Management Systems. There are two categories of Fleet Management Systems, depending on the data location. If there is a recording unit in the vehicle and the recorded data are processed and evaluated afterwards, it is called off-line Fleet Management System. When all the vehicles are connected on-line to a computer server over mobile internet, and real-time information and data evaluation is available, is called the on-line Fleet Management System.
A Fleet Management System can include many functions:
- Vehicle maintenance
- Vehicle tracking and diagnostic
- Fuel management
- Driver management
- Tachograph management (Remote download)
- Health and safety management
Example of an on-line Fleet Management System:
Example of an off-line Fleet Management System:
The abbreviation of AVL stands for Automatic Vehicle Locator, most commonly called as vehicle tracking device. There are GPS and/or GLONASS based positioning systems integrated together with an industrial GSM/UMTS modem, which sends the positioning information on-line to a central computer server. AVL devices may be extended with vehicle technical information like fuel tank level, engine revolution, fuel used, and so on.
FMS Gateway is a device that connects to one or more vehicle CAN-Bus and collects information about the vehicles operation. This information is available on standardized output format regulated by the corresponding FMS Standard documentation.
The FMS Gateway default output protocol is CAN as defined in the standard but there are manufacturers who make serial (RS232 based) output protocol available in there devices. The Inventure FMS Gateway is much more than a simple protocol converter, since it contains special algorithms e.g. for fuel consumption calculations and for driving style estimation.
Contactless CAN interface ensures safe data read from vehicle CAN bus without any disruption. This way any warranty and safety issues can be avoided. The non-galvanic (galvanic isolated) connection guarantees that no signal to be sent back to vehicle CAN bus.
Contactless CAN interfaces can either be used with FMS Gateways, or independently, with any telematics (AVL) devices.
A Board Computer in a vehicle refers to an electronic control unit used to monitor vehicle electrical components and to process data (such as fuel consumption, vehicle distance, average speed, etc.) for the instrument panel. Board computer can also serve as a Human Machine Interface (HMI) for displaying the measured and calculated information about the vehicle.
Most of modern vehicles have a factory-installed on board computer providing basic fuel and trip information. There are aftermarket products which can produce more information including detailed fuel consumption, trip data, driver behaviour, eco-driving, etc.
Galvanic isolation is a separation technique of electric circuits, meaning electrical current flow is impossible between two electrical systems. Signals can pass through the galvanic isolation, but electrical current flow is blocked. There are several methods for non-galvanic information transmission such as electromagnetic waves (induction, capacitance) or optical coupling.
E type approval
As a part of the UN Vehicle Regulations (1958 Agreement), the “World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations” (WP.29) defines all the different type approval requirements for road-vehicles and their components in so called Regulations, numbered from 1 to 131. For example the type approval requirements for vehicles and vehicle components with regard to electromagnetic compatibility can be found in UNECE Regulation No. 10.
The E approval mark affixed to a vehicle or a vehicle component means that it has been approved in Hungary (E7) pursuant to Regulation No. 10 under approval No. 041203. The approval number indicates that the approval was granted according to the requirements of Regulation No. 10 as amended by the 04 series of amendments.