Fleet Management System Standard (FMS Standard)

There are great numbers of vehicle manufacturers having different types of vehicles on the market. They all have specific in-vehicle communication systems. To be able to “understand” each vehicle, one has to learn all these specific “languages”.

Since the establishment of the FMS standard, there is no need to learn just one “language”. No matter which OEM produced a vehicle, if it was equipped with an FMS interface (FMS Gateway), there is the same output for all vehicles. The standard itself was a huge step forward in fleet management, since telematics devices (AVL) could access vehicle technical information without the need of vehicle specific developments.

In this section you can read about the history of FMS Standard, understand the difference between Truck and Bus FMS, and search for a specific signal.

FMS standard

In the beginning of the XXI. century, GPS based vehicle tracking systems became more and more affordable, but they still could not provide vehicle related technical information. In 2002, six major truck manufacturers (Volvo, Scania, Iveco, MAN, DAF, Mercedes-Benz) decided to create a standardized vehicle interface for these GPS based tracking systems, called the FMS standard.

FMS Standard lower layer protocols:

  • Application layer – SAE J1939/71
  • Data link layer – SAE J1939/21
  • Physical layer – ISO 11898-2 High-speed CAN, 250 kbit/s bus speed
  • Physical connectors – Not standardized

FMS Standard 1.0 (Initial standard issued in 2002)

Bus FMS standard (Ver. 00.01 issued in 2007, specialized standard for buses and coaches including specific signals like door openings, etc. Since then the original “FMS Standard 1.0” was also referred as “Truck FMS Standard”)

FMS Standard 2.0 (extended standard issued in 2010. This standard took over some signals from the Bus FMS Standard, but FMS Standard 2.0 was still handled separately for Trucks.)

FMS Standard 3.0 harmonized Bus and Truck standard (issued in 2012). From now on there is only FMS Standard 3.0, but there are separated sections inside for buses and trucks.

The development of FMS-standard is now under the umbrella of the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA). The dedicated working group “Heavy Truck Electronic Interface Group” meets regularly to discuss the needs of the FMS-standard.

FMS Standard 1.0

FMS Standard 1.0 issued in 2002.

Available information:

  • CCVS: Cruise Control / Vehicle Speed
    • Wheel based speed
    • Clutch switch
    • Brake switch
    • Cruise control activation
    • PTO state
  • EEC2: Electronic Engine Controller #2
    • Accelerator pedal position
  • TFU: Fuel consumption
    • Total fuel used
  • DD: Dash Display
    • Fuel level
  • EEC1: Electronic Engine Controller #1
    • Engine speed
  • VW: Vehicle Weight
    • Axle location
    • Axle weight
  • HOURS: Engine Hours, Revolutions
    • Total engine hours
  • VI: Vehicle Identification
    • Vehicle identification number
  • FMS: FMS-Standard Interface
    • Request supported
    • Diagnostic supported
    • SW-version supported
  • VDHR: High Resolution Vehicle Distance
    • High resolution total vehicle distance
  • SERV: Service Distance
    • Service distance
  • TCO1: Tachograph Information
    • Drive recognize
    • Overspeed
    • Direction indicator
    • Driver 1 card status
    • Driver 2 card status
    • Driver 1 working states
    • Driver 2 working states
    • Driver 1 time related states
    • Driver 2 time related states
    • Tachograph performance
    • Handling information
    • System event
    • Tachograph vehicle speed
  • ET1: Engine Temperature 1
    • Engine coolant temperature

Bus-FMS

For buses and coaches there was no common interface standard for Fleet Management Systems, so the most significant European bus manufacturers decided to design an interface based on the (Truck) FMS Standard according to the J1939 standard.  This common interface was called as Bus FMS Standard.

These establishing manufacturers were:

Daimler Buses - EvoBus GmbH, MAN Truck & Bus AG,  Scania CV, Volvo Bus Corporation, IrisBus Iveco, VDL Bus International B.V.

Until the issue of FMS Standard 3.0, the Bus FMS Standard was developed separately from the original (Truck) FMS Standard.  FMS Standard 3.0 contains the two different standards harmonized in one documentation.

Truck-FMS

FMS Standard until version 2.0 is also called as Truck-FMS Standard. See FMS standard for more information.

FMS Standard 2.0

FMS Standard 2.0 issued in 2010.

The additional information compared to FMS Standard 1.0 is the followings:

  • EEC2: Electronic Engine Controller #2
    • Engine percent load at current speed
  • AMB: Ambient Conditions
    • Ambient air temperature
  • DI: Driver’s Identification
    • Driver 1 identification
    • Driver 2 identification
  • LFE: Fuel Economy
    • Fuel rate
    • Instantaneous fuel economy
  • PTODE: PTO Drive Engagement
    • At least one PTO engaged
  • HRLFC: High Resolution Fuel Consumption
    • High resolution engine total fuel used

FMS Standard 3.0

FMS Standard 3.0 issued in 2012 contains (Truck) FMS Standard and Bus FMS Standard harmonized in one documentation.

FMS 3.0 defines the following common messages for trucks and buses:

  • Engine total fuel used
  • Fuel level 1
  • Actual engine – Percent torque
  • Engine speed
  • Engine total hours of operation
  • Vehicle identification number
  • SW-Version supported
  • Diagnostic supported
  • Requests supported
  • High resolution total vehicle distance
  • Vehicle motion
  • Driver 2 working state
  • Driver 1 working state
  • Vehicle overspeed
  • Driver 1 time related states
  • Driver 2 time related states
  • Driver 1 card
  • Driver 2 card
  • Direction indicator
  • Tachograph performance
  • Handling information
  • System event
  • Tachograph vehicle speed
  • Engine coolant temperature
  • Ambient air temperature
  • Driver’s identification
  • Fuel rate
  • Instantaneous fuel economy
  • Service brake air pressure circuit #1
  • Service brake air pressure circuit #2
  • High resolution engine total fuel used
  • Aftertreatment 1 diesel exhaust fluid tank 1 level
  • FMS tell-tale status

FMS 3.0 defines the following messages for trucks only:

  • Wheel based speed
  • Clutch switch
  • Brake switch
  • Cruise control active
  • PTO state
  • Accelerator pedal position
  • Engine percent load at current speed
  • Axle location
  • Tire location
  • Axle weight
  • Service distance
  • At least one PTO engaged
  • Gross combination vehicle weight
  • Retarder torque mode
  • Actual retarder - Percent torque
  • Retarder selection, non-engine

FMS 3.0 defines the following messages for buses only:

  • Wheel based speed
  • Clutch switch
  • Brake switch
  • Cruise control active
  • Parking brake switch
  • Accelerator pedal position
  • Status 2 of doors
  • Ramp/wheel chairlift status
  • Position of doors
  • Status of doors 1 – 10
  • Seconds
  • Minutes
  • Hours
  • Month
  • Day
  • Year
  • Alternator status 4
  • Alternator status 3
  • Alternator status 2
  • Alternator status 1
  • Selected gear
  • Current gear
  • Bellow pressure front axle left
  • Bellow pressure front axle right
  • Bellow pressure rear axle left
  • Bellow pressure rear axle right